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Warlords in other provinces were even more hard-pressed. One way of raising funds were taxes called lijin that were often confiscatory and inflicted much economic harm.
Taxes owed to the central government in Beijing on stamp and salt were usually taken by regional authorities. The warlords demanded loans from the banks.
The other major revenue source besides taxes, loans and looting was the selling of opium, with the warlords selling the rights to grow and sell opium within their provinces to consortia of gangsters.
Despite his ostensible anti-opium stance, Gen. Inflation was another means of paying for their soldiers.
Some warlords simply ran the printing presses, issuing new Chinese dollars non-stop, and some resorted to duplicating machines to issue new Chinese dollars.
The warlord who ruled Hunan province printed 22 million Chinese dollars on a silver reserve worth only one million Chinese dollars in the course of a single year, while Zhang in Shandong province printed 55 million Chinese dollars on a silver reserve of 1.
The illiterate Marshal Zhang, who engaged in reckless printing of Chinese dollars, did not understand it was he who was causing the inflation in Manchuria, and his remedy was simply to summon the leading merchants of Mukden, accuse them of greed because they were always raising their prices, had five of them selected at random publicly shot and told the rest to behave better.
Despite their constant need for money, the warlords lived in luxury. Marshal Zhang owned the world's biggest pearl, while Gen. Wu owned the world's biggest diamond.
Marshal Zhang, the "Old Marshal", lived in a lavish palace in Mukden with his five wives, old Confucian texts and a cellar full of fine French wines, and needed 70 cooks in his kitchen to make enough food for him, his wives and his guests.
Zhang, the "Dogmeat General", ate his meals off a piece Belgian dinner service, and an American journalist described dinner with him: There was French champagne and sound brandy".
The warlords bought machine guns and artillery from abroad, but their uneducated soldiers could not operate or service them.
A British mercenary complained in that Wu Peifu had about 45 European artillery pieces that were inoperable because they had not been properly maintained.
Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg. The Chinese might have stopped Ungern had they been capable of firing their machine guns properly, to adjust for the inevitable upward jerk caused by the firing; they did not, and this caused the bullets to overshoot their targets.
The inability to use their machine guns properly proved costly; after taking Urga in February , Ungern had his Cossacks and Mongol cavalry hunt down the remnants of Xu's troops as they attempted to flee south on the road back to China.
Because their soldiers were not able to use or take proper care of modern weapons, the warlords often hired foreign mercenaries, who were effective but always open to other offers.
The Russian mercenaries, according to one reporter, "went through the Chinese troops like a knife through butter". The most highly paid of the Russian units was led by Gen.
Nechanev and his men were much feared. In they drove three armored trains through the countryside, gunning down everyone they met and taking everything moveable.
The rampage was stopped only when the peasants pulled up the train tracks, which led Nechanev to sack the nearest town.
To defend themselves from the attacks of the warlord armies, peasants organized themselves into militant secret societies and village associations which served as self-defense militias as well as vigilante groups.
As the peasants usually had neither money for guns nor military training, these secret societies relied on martial arts, self-made weapons such as swords and spears, as well as the belief in protective magic.
For example, elements of the Red Spear Society performed secret ceremonies to confer invulnerability from bullets to channel the power of Qi and went into battle naked with supposedly bulletproof red clay smeared over their bodies.
The past was widely romanticized, and many believed that a Ming emperor would bring a "reign of happiness and justice for all". The death of Yuan Shikai split the Beiyang Army into two main factions.
The Zhili and Fengtian clique were in alliance with one another, while the Anhui clique formed their own faction. International recognition was based on the presence in Beijing, and every Beiyang clique tried to assert their dominance over the capital to claim legitimacy.
The government worked closely with the Zhili clique, led by Vice President Feng Guozhang, to maintain stability in the capital.
Continuing military influence over the Beiyang government led to provinces around the country refusing to declare their allegiance.
The debate between the President and the Premier on whether or not China should participate in the First World War was followed by political unrest in Beijing.
As Zhang marched into Beijing on 1 July, he quickly dissolved the parliament and proclaimed a Manchu Restoration. The new government quickly fell to Duan after he returned to Beijing with reinforcements from Tianjin.
As another government formed in Beijing, Duan's fundamental disagreements over national issues with the new President Feng Guozhang led to Duan's resignation in The alliance with the Fengtian was only one of convenience and war broke out in the First Zhili—Fengtian War , with Zhili driving Fengtian forces back to Manchuria.
Next, they wanted to bolster their legitimacy and reunify the country by returning Li Yuanhong to the presidency and restoring the National Assembly.
They proposed that Xu Shichang and Sun Yat-sen resign their rival presidencies simultaneously in favor of Li. Chen Jiongming by recognizing him as governor of Guangdong.
With Sun driven out of Guangzhou , the Zhili clique superficially restored the constitutional government that existed prior to Zhang Xun's coup.
Cao bought the presidency in despite opposition by the KMT, Fengtian, Anhui remnants, some of his lieutenants and the public.
In the autumn of the Zhili appeared to be on the verge of complete victory in the Second Zhili—Fengtian War until Feng Yuxiang betrayed the clique, seized Beijing and imprisoned Cao.
Zhili forces were routed from the north but kept the center. Feng soon broke off with Zhili clique again and formed Guominjun and allied himself with Duan Qirui.
Zhang Zuolin took advantage of the situation, and entered Shanhai Pass from the Northeast and captured Beijing. The Fengtian clique remained in control of the capital until the Northern Expedition led by National Revolutionary Army forced Zhang out of power in June The southern provinces were notably against the Beiyang government in the north, having resisted the restoration of monarchy by Yuan Shikai and the subsequent government in Peking after his death.
Sun Yat-sen along with other southern leaders have formed a government in Guangzhou to resist the rule of the Beiyang warlords, and the Guangzhou government came to be known as part of the Constitutional Protection War.
In September Sun was named generalissimo of the military government with the purpose of protecting the provisional constitution of The southern warlords assisted his regime solely to legitimize their fiefdoms and challenge Beijing.
In a bid for international recognition, they also declared war against the Central Powers but failed to garner any recognition. In July southern militarists thought Sun was given too much power and forced him to join a governing committee.
Continual interference forced Sun into self-imposed exile. While away, he recreated the Chinese Nationalist Party , or Kuomintang. With the help of KMT Gen.
Chen Jiongming , committee members Gen. Cen Chunxuan , Adm. Lin Baoyi and Gen. Lu Rongting were expelled in the Guangdong—Guangxi War.
In May Sun was elected "extraordinary president" by a rump parliament despite protests by Chen and Tang Shaoyi , who complained of its unconstitutionality.
Tang left while Chen plotted with the Zhili clique to overthrow Sun in June in return for recognition of his governorship over Guangdong. After Chen was driven out of Guangzhou, Sun returned again to assume leadership in March The party was reorganized along Leninist democratic centralism , and the alliance with the Communist Party of China came to be known as First United Front.
The Guangzhou government focused on training new officers through the newly created Whampoa Military Academy. In , the Zhilii clique fell out of power, and Sun travelled to Beiping to negotiate terms of reunification with leaders from Guominjun , Fengtian and Anhui clique.
He was unable to secure the terms as he died in March from illness. Power struggles within the KMT ensued after the death of Sun.
In the north, there were struggles led by Guominjun against Fengtian-Zhili alliance from November to April The defeat of Guominjun ended their reign in Beiping.
Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang of the Chili clique were subsequently defeated in central and eastern China.
In response to the situation, the Guominjun and Yan Xishan of Shanxi formed an alliance with Chiang to attack the Fengtian clique together. In , Chiang initiated a violent purge of Communists in the Kuomintang, which marked the end of the First United Front.
Though Chiang had consolidated the power of the KMT in Nanking, it was still necessary to capture Beiping to claim the legitimacy needed for international recognition.
Yan Xishan moved in and captured Beiping on behalf of his new allegiance after the death of Zhang Zuolin in Despite the reunification, there were still ongoing conflicts across the country.
Remaining regional warlords across China chose to cooperate with the Nationalist government, but disagreements soon broke out into a full scale war in Northwest China erupted into a series of wars in Xinjiang from to Following the Xi'an Incident in , efforts began to shift toward preparation of war against the Japanese Empire.
These are general studies or works cited. For works on individuals, battles, or special topics, please see the pages on those topics.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. List of warlords and military cliques in the Warlord Era.
Find more about Warlord Era at Wikipedia's sister projects. The Revival of China, Volume 1. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Twentieth-century Chinese understandings of violence, militarism, and imperialism". Retrieved 7 May Smith, "The Military Challenge: Basic Books, pages , Bandits in Republican China.
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Please try your search again later. Product Description In a unique blend of role-playing and turn-based strategy, the success or failure of the military and economy depend on you.
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Showing of 21 reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. This game isn't as bad as some of the other reviews say especially once you get the patch , but I would agree that it's not great.
The main problem is that they removed some of the nicest features from previous versions of the game: No more "King of the Hill" feature.
To win, you have to capture every other enemy capital. That gets pretty boring once you've established an invincible supply chain.
At least you don't have to conquer every city; you just have to capture every enemy capital. No more unit vectoring!
Removing this was a big mistake. The new "production waypoints" system, as people have said, is a step backwards and can be a MAJOR hassle to tinker with once you've built a large empire.
I agree that magic items have become kind of wimpy now though I don't agree with whoever said that heroes have become expendable--you won't feel that way when you see what a very high level hero can do.
Exploring ruins usually isn't a good gamble unless you have a very strong stack. Otherwise, you'll lose units in the battle, and the reward is rarely worth it.
The AI is still very predictable. Basically, the computer will always choose the fastest route to its target, meaning that if you can take control of the obvious transit routes, the AI will have a hard time positioning its troops to attack you.
So I don't agree with the reviewer who said that strong flying troops negate the effect of terrain. In practice, it doesn't work that way, because the AI stupidly always tries to use roads if it can.
You almost never have to protect your flank. On the plus side: Magic, though still too weak, has been seriously upgraded.
There was virtually no reason to fool around with magic in previous versions of the game; at least now the spells are stronger and the magic system is more complex.
The graphics are a lot better. But no one has ever played the Warlords series for the graphics. Combat is more balanced. Plan on losing more units than in the past.
You also have to think more carefully about how to put a stack together. The game is stable and loads surprisingly quickly.
This game is simplistic and has some cute details but it requires no disc after it is loaded on the computer so months after you get tired of it you can go back to it and realize you weren't so tired of it after all.
The game cheats quite a bit but the quick save option allows you to quick save before a battle you initiate and replay the battle if you didn't like the outcome or you think the game took advantage of you which sometimes it does.
If you like simple entertainment this works. I'[m not a hard-core gamer, and I don't spend all my free time playing games. RPGs that are huge and complex are more trouble than I want to go to, and strategy games with dozens of complex tradeoffs that take weeks to learn are way beyond my interest.
This is a fun, easy to learn game that you can play for a little bit at a time and have fun with. If you are a hard-core gamer, I suspect you'll find this pretty facile and get bored with it.
But for the casual player like me, this is a terrific game. Not sure if the problem was my computer My computer wouldn't install this, I scanned google for fixes to my problem, then I gave up.
Not sure if the problem was my computer or this disc, but either way, I am unsatisfied. I've been playing Warlords since the original game came out.
I actually still play the original every once in awhile. Every new version of the game improved on the concept with the exception of Warlords 4.
There are so many things missing, most notably diplomacy, that simply ruin this game. I honestly believe they ran out of money to make the game.
Warlords and Heroes of Might and Magic are my favorite series of all time. I love these types of games. This game is so bad however, that I actually deleted this game, threw it away and went back to playing Warlords 3 which is a significantly better game.
The only good thing about this game is that when I went to the website to see when they would release the unfinished half of the game many of the posters were talking about a game called Dominions 2.
I ordered it and have been playing it almost non stop for 3 months.